JOURNAL ONKOLOGIE – STUDIE
Phase III Study of Induction and Consolidation Chemotherapy With Venetoclax in Patients With Newly Diagnosed AML or MDS-EB-2
Indikation (Clinical Trials):
Leukemia, Leukemia, Myeloid, Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute, Preleukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndromes
University of Ulm
Stichting Hemato-Oncologie voor Volwassenen Nederland
University of Ulm
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Studienlocations (1 von 1)
Prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase 3 clinical
study. The randomized phase of the study will be preceded by a feasibility run-in
dose-escalation phase in patients with AML in which the venetoclax dose for the phase 3 part
will be established.
After the feasibility run-in phase, eligible patients will be randomized to intensive
chemotherapy with venetoclax or placebo. Patients will receive two cycles of induction
chemotherapy; patients achieving CR or CRi after two cycles will continue with consolidation
treatment according to initial randomization, and according to Cooperative Group-specific
consolidation regimens or investigator choice. Patients achieving morphologic leukemia-free
state (MLFS) only, may also continue consolidation treatment on protocol. Assignment to
either allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), conventional chemotherapy or
autologous HCT will be done according to institutional standards, and based on (prognostic)
disease characteristics, individual patient assessment, and established comorbidity risk
scores (e.g., HCT-CI score).
1. Patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML), or myelodysplastic
syndrome with excess blasts-2 (MDS-EB2) according to World Health Organization (WHO)
2. Age ≥ 18 years, no upper age limit.
3. Patient considered eligible for intensive chemotherapy.
4. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status ≤ 2 at randomization.
5. Molecular analysis centrally performed in AMLSG and HOVON laboratories.
6. Adequate renal function as evidenced by serum creatinine ≤ 2.0 × upper limit of norm
(ULN) or creatinine clearance >40 mL/min based on the Cockcroft-Gault glomerular
filtration rate (GFR).
7. Adequate hepatic function as evidenced by:
- Serum total bilirubin ≤ 2.5 × ULN unless considered due to Gilbert's disease, or
leukemic involvement following approval by the Coordinating Investigator or Trial
- Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline
phosphatase (ALP) ≤ 3.0 × ULN, unless considered due to leukemic involvement
following approval by the Coordinating Investigator or Trial Coordinator
8. No prior chemotherapy for AML except hydroxyurea for up to 14 days during the
diagnostic screening phase for the control of peripheral leukemic blasts in patients
with leukocytosis (e.g., white blood cell [WBC] counts > 25x109/L); patients may have
had previous treatment with erythroid stimulating agents (ESA) or hypomethylating
agents (HMAs) for an antecedent phase of MDS; ESA and HMAs have to be stopped at least
four weeks before enrolment.
9. Subjects must not have received a known strong or moderate CYP3A inducer 7 days before
enrolment. Subjects must have no known medical conditions requiring chronic therapy
with moderate or strong CYP3A inducers.
10. Female patient must either:
- Be of nonchildbearing potential:
- Postmenopausal (defined as at least 1 year without any menses)
- Documented surgically sterile or status posthysterectomy (at least 1 month
prior to screening)
- Or, if of childbearing potential (not surgically sterile (e.g. documented
hysterectomy, bilateral oophorectomy, bilateral salpingectomy or congenital
sterile) and not postmenopausal)
- Not planning to become pregnant during the study and for 6 months after the
final study drug administration
- And have a negative urine or serum pregnancy test at screening
- And, if heterosexually active, agree to consistently apply one highly
effective* in combination to a barrier method for the duration of the study
and for 6 months after the final study drug administration
*Highly effective forms of birth control include
- Consistent and correct usage of established hormonal contraceptives that
inhibit ovulation (hormonal contraception is only a highly effective method
of birth control, if a combined [estrogen and progestogen containing]
hormonal contraception or a progestogen-only hormonal contraception - both
associated with inhibition of ovulation - is used.
- Established intrauterine device (IUD) or intrauterine system (IUS)
- Bilateral tubal occlusion
- Vasectomy - a vasectomy is highly effective contraception method provided
the absence of sperm has been confirmed. If not, an additional highly
effective method of contraception should be used.
- Male is sterile due to a bilateral orchiectomy.
- Sexual abstinence is considered a highly effective method only if defined as
refraining from heterosexual activity during the entire period of risk
associated with the study drug. The reliability of sexual abstinence needs
to be evaluated in relation to the duration of the clinical study and the
preferred and usual lifestyle of the patient.
*List is not all inclusive. Prior to enrolment, the investigator is
responsible for confirming patient will utilize highly effective forms of
birth control in combination with a barrier method according to locally
accepted standards during the protocol defined period.
- Female patient must agree not to breastfeed starting at screening and
throughout the study period, and for 2 months and 1 week after the final
study drug administration.
- Female patient must not donate ova starting at screening and throughout the
study period, and for 6 months after the final study drug administration.
11. Men must use a latex condom during any sexual contact with WOCBP, even if they have
undergone a successful vasectomy and must agree to avoid to father a child (while on
therapy and for 6 months after the final study drug administration). In addition,
their female partners of childbearing potential have to use a highly effective method
of birth control.
12. Male patient must not donate sperm starting at screening and throughout the study
period and for 6 months after the final study drug administration.
13. Able to understand and willing to sign an informed consent form (ICF).
1. Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with t(15;17)(q22;q12); PML-RARA; or one of the
other pathognomonic variant chromosomal translocations / fusion genes.
2. AML with BCR-ABL1; or myeloid blast crisis of CML.
3. Patients with AML and activating FLT3 mutations who have access (including
reimbursement) to treatment with a FLT3 inhibitor approved for first-line therapy of
4. Prior treatment of MDS with intensive chemotherapy or allogeneic hematopoietic cell
transplantation (HCT) with a curative intent.
5. Significant active cardiac disease within 6 months prior to the start of study
- New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III or IV congestive heart failure;
- Myocardial infarction;
- Unstable angina and/or stroke;
- Severe cardiac arrhythmias
- Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <40% by ultrasound obtained within 28
days prior to the start of study treatment
6. Severe obstructive or restrictive ventilation disorder.
7. Co-administration of moderate/strong CYP inhibitors during the DLT observation period
for subjects in the dose-finding part of the study.
8. Clinical symptoms suggestive of active central nervous system (CNS) leukemia or known
CNS leukemia. Evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during screening is only
required, if there is a clinical suspicion of CNS involvement by leukemia during
9. Active infection, including hepatitis B or hepatitis C or Human Immunodeficiency Virus
(HIV) infection, that is uncontrolled at randomization and may interfere with the
study objectives or which could expose the subject to undue risk through the
participation in the clinical trial; an infection controlled with an approved
antibiotic/ antiviral/ antifungal treatment that is not a strong or moderate CYP3A
inducer is allowed.
10. Immediate life-threatening, severe complications of leukemia such as uncontrolled
bleeding and/or disseminated intravascular coagulation.
11. Conditions that limit the ingestion or gastrointestinal absorption of orally
12. Patients with a currently active second malignancy. Patients are not considered to
have a currently active malignancy, if they have completed therapy and are considered
by their physician to be at < 30% risk of relapse within one year. However, subjects
with the following history/concurrent conditions are allowed:
- Basal or squamous cell carcinoma of the skin;
- Carcinoma in situ of the cervix;
- Carcinoma in situ of the breast;
- Incidental histologic finding of prostate cancer.
13. Receipt of live, attenuated vaccine within 30 days prior to the study inclusion (NOTE:
subjects, if enrolled, should not receive live vaccine during the study and until 6
months after the therapy).
14. Severe neurological or psychiatric disorder interfering with ability to give an
15. Known or suspected hypersensitivity to any of the chemotherapeutic agents used.
16. No consent for registration, storage and processing of the individual disease
characteristics and course as well as information of the family physician about study
17. No consent for biobanking of patient's biological specimens.
18. Participation in other prospective studies with anti-leukemic and/or investigational
19. The patient is a pregnant or lactating woman, or plans to become pregnant during the
1. Event Free Survival (EFS) (Time Frame - 6 months/16 months after inclusion of last patient):
EFS in adult patients with newly diagnosed AML, defined as the time from randomization to treatment failure, death from any cause, or relapse after achieving CR or CRi, or start of new therapy due to confirmed molecular relapse whichever occurs first. Treatment failure is defined as not attaining CR or CRi after induction chemotherapy, and EFS event time for treatment failure is Day 1 of post-randomization
2. Frequency of dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) during the observation period (Primary safety endpoint during dose-finding phase) (Time Frame - after cycle 1 (maximal day 42)):
Frequency of dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) during the observation period (from start of cycle 1 up to a maximum of day 42, or until the start of cycle 2)
1. Overall Survival (OS) (Time Frame - 6 months/16 months/28 months after inclusion of last patient):
OS in patients with newly diagnosed AML
2. CR/CRi rate (Time Frame - 2 months):
Complete remission (CR/CRi) rate in newly diagnosed AML patients defined as the proportion of AML patients with CR/CRi after induction chemotherapy
3. CR rate (Time Frame - 2 months):
Complete remission (CR) rates in newly diagnosed AML patients defined as the proportion of AML patients with CR after induction chemotherapy
4. Rates of complete remission without measurable residual disease (CRMRD-) after induction therapy (Time Frame - 2 months):
Rates of complete remission without measurable residual disease (CRMRD-) after induction therapy, defined as the proportion of AML patients achieving CR/CRi with negativity for a genetic marker by RT-qPCR, and/or with negativity by multi-color flow cytometry, if studied pre-treatment
5. Relapse-free survival (RFS) in newly diagnosed AML patients (Time Frame - 16 months after inclusion of last patient):
Relapse-free survival (RFS) in newly diagnosed AML patients, defined as the time from achievement of a remission (CR/CRi) following curative therapy (induction and consolidation), to relapse, or start of new therapy due to confirmed molecular relapse or death from any cause
6. Cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) in newly diagnosed AML patients (Time Frame - 16 months after inclusion of last patient):
Cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) in newly diagnosed AML patients
7. Cumulative incidence of death (CID) (Time Frame - 16 months after inclusion of last patient):
Cumulative incidence of death (CID) in newly diagnosed AML patients.
8. EQ-5D-5L questionnaire of the EuroQoL (EQ) group, among AML patients (Time Frame - 6 months):
Health status is measured in terms of five dimensions (5D); mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression. Each dimension is rated using a 5 level (5L) scale from 1 (minimum) to 5 (maximum). Higher score values mean a worse outcome.
9. European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ-C30) among AML patients (Time Frame - 6 months):
All sub scales and single items have values from 1 (minimum) to 100 (maximum) points. A higher point value represents a better condition in terms of the functional scales and quality of life. In the symptomal sub scales a higher point value represents a worse condition.
10. Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Cancer Fatigue short form among AML patients (Time Frame - 6 months):
The 7-item PROMIS Cancer Fatigue Short Form assesses the frequency of fatigue in the past seven days (7). Table 2 presents a list of the items. Items are measured on a five point scale (1 = never; 5 = always) and summed, after reverse scoring item 7, with higher scores indicating greater fatigue (worse condition).
- Experimental: 1
standard chemotherapy in combination with venetoclax
- Placebo Comparator: 2
standard chemotherapy in combination with placebo
Induction cycle 1: Venetoclax will be administered orally QD, daily dose: 100mg/200mg/300mg, days 1-12 (after a 1/2/3 day ramp-up phase) (as determined during run-in phase) Induction cycle 2: Venetoclax will be administered orally QD, daily dose: 100mg/200mg/300mg, patients not in CR/CRi: days 1-12 (after a 1/2/3 day ramp-up phase) or patients in CR/CRi: days 1-14 (without ramp-up) (as determined during run-in phase) Consolidation phase: Venetoclax will be administered orally QD, daily dose: 100mg/200mg/300mg, days 1-14 (as determined during run-in phase)
Induction cycle 1: Placebo will be administered orally QD, daily dose: 100mg/200mg/300mg, days 1-12 (after a 1/2/3 day ramp-up phase) (as determined during run-in phase) Induction cycle 2: Placebo will be administered orally QD, daily dose: 100mg/200mg/300mg, patients not in CR/CRi: days 1-12 (after a 1/2/3 day ramp-up phase) or patients in CR/CRi: days 1-14 (without ramp-up) (as determined during run-in phase) Consolidation phase: Placebo will be administered orally QD, daily dose: 100mg/200mg/300mg, days 1-14 (as determined during run-in phase)
- Standard chemotherapy:
Induction cycle 1: Patients will receive cytarabine 200 mg/m2 continuous IV (days 1-7) and daunorubicin 60 mg/m2 IV (days 1-3). Induction cycle 2: Patients ≤ 60 yrs will receive cytarabine 1000 mg/m2 BID (3h IV), days 1-6, and daunorubicin 60 mg/m2 IV (days 1-3). Patients >60 yrs will receive cytarabine 1000 mg/m2 BID (3h IV), days 1-6 without daunorubicin. Consolidation chemotherapy option 1 consists of one cycle of mitoxantrone (10mg/m2 IV) and etoposide (100mg/m2 IV) (ME) days 1-5 (patients ≤60 yrs) or days 1-3 (patients >60 yrs). Consolidation chemotherapy option 2 consists of intermediate doses of cytarabine. Patients ≤60 yrs will receive up to 3 cycles of IDAC (single dose 1500 mg/m2 every 12 hours, days 1-3). Patients who are >60 yrs will receive up to 3 cycles of IDAC with single doses of 1000 mg/m2, every 12 hours, days 1-3. In patients >60 yrs less than 3 cycles of IDAC or dose-reduced IDAC (500 mg/m2 per single dose) may be given based on an individual risk assessment.
- Autologous stem cell transplantation:
Busulfan/Cyclophosphamide will be administered as conditioning regime. Patients may proceed to autologous HCT when they have reached CR/CRi/MLFS after at least two cycles of chemotherapy and performance status permits continuation with high-dose chemotherapy. Venetoclax will not be added to or given after the conditioning regimen.
- Allogeneic stem cell transplantation:
Generally, patients will proceed to allogeneic HCT upon completion of remission induction chemotherapy. It is however allowed, as per investigator's discretion, for a patient to receive 'bridging' consolidation chemotherapy in exceptional cases of delay towards transplantation. At baseline, HLA-compatible donor search must be initiated as soon as possible, first among siblings and second in the world donor bank for unrelated donors or cord blood. In order to avoid inappropriate delay in cases where no suitable sibling is present, high-resolution HLA typing should be performed immediately after registration, enabling a more rapid matched-unrelated donor search. In case no sibling or unrelated donor can be identified, haploidentical allogeneic HCT is allowed. Conditioning and GVHD prophylaxis will take place according to institutional guidelines. Patients who undergo allogeneic HCT will not receive venetoclax during conditioning, engraftment or after hematologic recovery.